Alhamdulillah wa salaatu wa sallamu ala Rasulillah!
Ibn Umar (ra) a spus:”Doua ‘Aid au venit impreuna in vremea Mesagerului lui Allah salAllahu aleihi wa sallam, asa ca el a condus oamenii in Rugaciune, apoi a spus:”Oricine doreste sa vina la (Rugaciunea) de Vineri, sa vina, si oricine doreste sa ramana in urma, sa ramana in urma.” [Sunan ibn Maajah, Vol. 1, Book 5, Hd 1312, Hassan]
S-a relatat de catre Iyas bin Abi Ramlah Ash-Shami:”Am auzit un om ca l-a intrebat pe Zaid bin Arqam:”Ati fost prezenti cu Mesagerul lui Allah salAllahu aleihi wa sallam cand erau doua ‘Aid in aceeasi zi?” El a spus:”Da!” A intrebat:”Si ce a facut?” El a spus:”A facut Rugaciunea de ‘Aid, apoi a acordat concesiunea sa nu se faca Rugaciunea de Vineri spunand:”Oricine doreste sa faca Rugaciunea (de Vineri), sa o faca.” [Sunan Ibn Maajah Vol. 1, Book 5, Hd 1310, Hassan]
Relatari asemanatoare se gasesc si in: Abu Dawood (1070) an-Nasaa’ee (3/194) Ibn Majah (1310) Ibn Khuzaimah (1474) ad-Daarimee ( 1620) Ahmad (4/372)
Shaikh Saleh al Fawzan a spus:”Daca ziua de ‘Aid coincide cu ziua de Vineri, oricine face Rugaciunea de ‘Aid cu imamul nu mai trebuie sa participe la Jumua’h (nu mai este obligatoriu); in acest caz, devine Sunnah. Daca a ales sa nu mearga la Rugaciunea Jumu’ah, atunci trebuie sa implineasca Rugaciunea de Zhur. Aceasta in cazul oamenilor, altii in afara de Imam. In cel priveste pe Imam, el trebuie sa se prezinte pentru Jumu’ah si sa-i conduca in Rugaciune pe cei care au venit sa faca Rugaciunea. Rugaciunea Jumua’h nu trebuie parasita complet in aceasta zi..” [Fataawa Islaamiyah Vol. 2 Pg 453-454 ]
Pentru cine se intreaba cum pot fi doua Aid-uri in aceeasi zi, trebuie sa mentionez ca ziua de Vineri este considerata o zi de Aid.
Ibn Abbas a relatat:”Mesagerul lui Allah sall Allahu aleihi wa sallam a spus:”Allah a facut aceasta zi de Vineri o sarbatoare pentru Musulmani. Oricine vine la Rugaciunea de Vineri, sa faca baie (ghusl), sa aplice parfum daca are, si sa foloseasca betisorul de dinti (miswak)”. [Sunan Ibn Majah 1098]
Alhamdulillahi Rabbil Alamin wa sallaatu wa salaamu ala Rasulillah!
Hajj is one of the best acts of worship. It is one of the pillars of Islam with which Allaah sent Muhammad (sall Allahu aleyhi wa sallam) and without which a person’s religious commitment is incomplete.
Worship cannot bring a person closer to Allaah and cannot be accepted unless it meets two conditions:
1 – Sincerity towards Allaah alone, i.e., it is done to seek the Countenance of Allaah and the Hereafter, and is not done to show off, to enhance one’s reputation or for worldly gain.
2 – Following the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) in word and deed. Following the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) can only be achieving by knowing his Sunnah.
Hence the one who wants to worship Allaah by doing any act of worship – Hajj or anything else – has to learn the teachings of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) concerning it, so that his actions will be in accordance with the Sunnah.
We will sum up in these few lines the description of Hajj as narrated in the Sunnah.
TYPES OF HAJJ
There are three types of Hajj: Tamattu’, Ifraad and Qiraan.
*Tamattu’ means entering ihraam for ‘Umrah only during the months of Hajj (the months of Hajj are Shawwaal, Dhu’l-Qi’dah and Dhu’l-Hijjah; see al-Sharh al-Mumti’, 7/62). When the pilgrim reaches Makkah he performs tawaaf and saa’i for ‘Umrah, and shaves his head or cuts his hair, and exits ihraam. Then when the day of al-Tarwiyah, which is the 8th of Dhu’l-Hijjah, comes, he enters ihraam for Hajj only, and does all the actions of Hajj. So Tamattu’ involves a complete ‘Umrah and a complete Hajj.
*Ifraad means entering ihraam for Hajj only. When the pilgrim reaches Makkah he performs tawaaf al-qudoom (tawaaf of arrival) and saa’i for Hajj, but he does not shave or cut his hair and does not exit ihraam, rather he remains in ihraam until he exits ihraam after stoning Jamarat al-‘Aqabah on the day of Eid. If he delays the saa’i of Hajj until after the tawaaf of Hajj, there is nothing wrong with that.
*Qiraan means entering ihraam for ‘Umrah and Hajj both together. Or entering ihraam for ‘Umrah first then including Hajj in that before starting the tawaaf of Hajj. That is done by intending that his tawaaf and saa’i will be for both Hajj and ‘Umrah.
The actions done in Qiraan are the same as those done in Ifraad, except that the pilgrim doing Qiraan has to offer a hadiy (sacrifice) whereas the pilgrim doing Ifraad does not.
The best of these three types of Hajj is Tamattu’. This is what the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) enjoined upon his companions and urged them to do. Even if a person enters ihraam for Qiraan or Ifraad, then it is strongly recommended for him to change his intention to ‘Umrah, then complete ‘Umrah and exit ihraam, so that he will then be doing Tamattu’. He may do that after doing tawaaf al-qudoom and saa’i – because when the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did tawaaf and saa’i during his Farewell Pilgrimage, and his companions were with him, he told everyone who did not have a sacrificial animal (hadiy) to change his intention and make his ihraam for ‘Umrah and to cut his hair and exit ihraam, and he said, “Were it not that I have brought the hadiy with me, I would do what I have commanded you to do.”
The pilgrim should observe the Sunnahs of ihraam, namely doing ghusl, applying perfume and praying. Then he should enter ihraam after he finishes the prayer or after boarding his means of transportation.
Then if he is doing Tamattu’, he should say, “Labbayk Allaahumma bi ‘Umrah (Here I am, O Allaah, for ‘Umrah).”
If he is doing Qiraam, he should say, “Labbayk Allaahumma bi Hijjah wa ‘Umrah (Here I am, O Allaah, for Hajj and ‘Umrah).”
If he is doing Ifraad, he should say, “Labbayk Allaahumma Hajjan (Here I am, O Allaah, for Hajj).”
Then he should say, “Allaahumma haadhihi hijjah laa riyaa’a fiha wa la sum’ah (O Allaah, this is a pilgrimage in which there is no showing off or seeking reputation).”
Then he should recite the Talbiyah as the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did: “Labbayka Allaahumma labbayk, labbayka laa shareeka laka labbayk. Inna al-hamd wa’l-ni’mata laka wa’l-mulk, laa shareeka lak (Here I am, O Allaah, here I am. Here I am, You have no partner, here I am. Verily all praise and blessings are Yours, and all sovereignty, You have no partner).”
The Talbiyah of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) also included the words, “Labbayka ilaah al-haqq (Here I am, O God of Truth).”
Ibn ‘Umar used to add to the Talbiyah the words, “Labbaayk wa sa’dayka, wa’l-khayr bi yadayka, wa’l-raghba’ ilayka wa’l-‘aml (Here I am and blessed by You, and all good is in Your hands, and desire and action are directed towards You).”
Men should raise their voices when saying this, but a woman should recite in such a manner that those who are beside her can hear it, unless there is a man beside her who is not one of her mahrams, in which case she should recite it silently.
If the person who is entering ihraam fears some obstacle that may prevent him from completing his pilgrimage (such as sickness, an enemy, being stopped from proceeding any further, etc), then he should stipulate a condition when entering ihraam by saying, “If I am prevented then my exiting ihraam is where I am prevented” – i.e., if something prevents me from completing my pilgrimage such as sickness or delay etc, then I will exit my ihraam. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) commanded Dubaa’ah bint al-Zubayr, when she wanted to enter ihraam but she was sick, to stipulate such a condition, and he said, “Your condition is valid with your Lord.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari (5089) and Muslim (1207).
If he stipulates this condition and something happens to prevent him from completing his pilgrimage, then he exits his ihraam and does not have to do anything (i.e., offer a sacrifice in compensation).
But the one who does not fear that some obstacle may prevent him from completing his pilgrimage does not have to stipulate any conditions, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did not stipulate conditions nor did he command everyone to do so. Rather he told Dubaa’ah bint al-Zubayr to do that because she was sick.
The muhrim (person who has entered ihraam) should recite the Talbiyah a great deal, especially when circumstances and times change, such as when going up to a high place or going down to a low place, or when night or day begin. After that he should ask Allaah for His good pleasure and for Paradise, and seek refuge in His Mercy from the Fire.
The Talbiyah is prescribed in ‘Umrah from the moment one enters ihraam until one starts Tawaaf. In Hajj it is prescribed from the moment one enters ihraam until one stones Jamarat al-‘Aqabah on the day of Eid.
GHUSL WHEN ENTERING MAKKAH
When the pilgrim approaches Makkah, he should do ghusl before entering, if possible, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did ghusl before entering Makkah. Narrated by Muslim, 1259.
Then when he enters al-Masjid al-Haraam he should do so with his right foot first, and say, “Bismillaah wa’l-salaatu wa’l-salaam ‘ala Rasool-Allaah. Allaahumma ighfir li dhunoobi waftah li abwaab rahmatika. A’oodhuBillaah il-‘Azeem wa bi wajhih il-kareem wa bi sultaanih il-‘qadeem min al-Shaytaan il-rajeem (In the name of Allaah, and blessings and peace be upon the Messenger of Allaah. O Allaah, forgive me my sins and open to me the gates of Your mercy. I seek refuge with Allaah the Almighty and in His noble Countenance and His eternal power from the accursed Satan).” Then he should go to the Black Stone in order to start tawaaf…
Then when he enters al-Masjid al-Haraam he should do so with his right foot first, and say, “Bismillaah wa’l-salaatu wa’l-salaam ‘ala Rasool-Allaah. Allaahumma ighfir li dhunoobi waftah li abwaab rahmatika. A’oodhu Billaah il-‘Azeem wa bi wajhih il-kareem wa bi sultaanih il-‘qadeem min al-Shaytaan il-rajeem (In the name of Allaah, and blessings and peace be upon the Messenger of Allaah. O Allaah, forgive me my sins and open to me the gates of Your mercy. I seek refuge with Allaah the Almighty and in His noble Countenance and His eternal power from the accursed Satan).”
Then he should go to the Black Stone in order to start tawaaf. He should touch the Stone with his right hand and kiss it; if he cannot kiss it then he should touch it with his hand and kiss his hand. If he cannot touch it with his hand then he should face the Stone and point to it with his hand and say “Allaahu akbar”, but he should not kiss his hand.
There is a great deal of virtue in touching the Black Stone, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Allaah will raise up the Black Stone on the Day of Resurrection and it will have two eyes with which it will see and a tongue with which it will speak, and it will bear witness for those who touched it in sincerity.” Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Targheeb wa’l-Tarheeb, 1144.
It is better not to crowd around and cause annoyance to people or be annoyed by them, because of the hadeeth in which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said to ‘Umar: “O ‘Umar, you are a strong man, do not crowd around the Stone and disturb the weak. If you find space, then touch it, otherwise just face it and say ‘Allaahu akbar.’” Narrated by Ahmad, 191; classed as qawiy by al-Albaani in Risaalat Manaasik al-Hajj wa’l-‘Umrah, p. 21.
Then he should move towards the right, with the Ka’bah on his left, and when he reaches the Yemeni Corner (al-Rukn al-Yamaani, which is the third corner after the Black Stone) he should touch it, without kissing his hand or saying “Allaahu akbar”. If he cannot touch it then he should move on, and not crowd around it. Between the Yemeni Corner and the Black Stone he should say, “Rabbanaa aatina fi’l-dunya hasanah wa fi’l-aakhirah hasanah wa qinna ‘adhaab al-Naar (Our Lord! Give us in this world that which is good and in the Hereafter that which is good, and save us from the torment of the Fire).” Narrated by Abu Dawood and classed as hasan by al-Albaani in Saheeh Abi Dawood, 1666.
Every time he passes the Black Stone he should face it and say ‘Allaahu akbar’, and in the rest of his tawaaf he should recite whatever he likes of dhikr, du’aa’ and Qur’aan, because tawaaf around the Ka’bah has been established for the remembrance of Allaah.
In Tawaaf men should do two things:
1 – Uncovering the right shoulder (idtibaa’) from the beginning of tawaaf until the end. This is done by placing the middle of the rida’ (upper garment) beneath the right armpit and the ends of the rida’ over the left shoulder. When the pilgrim finishes tawaaf, he should put his rida’ back as it was before tawaaf, because the time for wearing it with one shoulder uncovered is only in tawaaf.
2 – Raml in the first three circuits only. Raml means walking quickly with short steps. In the last four circuits there is no raml, rather the pilgrim should walk normally.
When the pilgrim has completed seven circuits of tawaaf, he should cover his right shoulder and then go to the Station of Ibraaheem (Maqaam Ibraaheem) and recite the words (interpretation of the meaning):
“And take you (people) the Maqaam (place) of Ibraaheem (Abraham) [or the stone on which Ibraaheem (Abraham) stood while he was building the Ka‘bah] as a place of prayer (for some of your prayers, e.g. two Rak‘at after the Tawaaf of the Ka‘bah at Makkah).”
Then he should pray two rak’ahs behind the Station; in the first rak’ah after reciting al-Faatihah he should recite Yaa ayyaha’l-kaafiroon (Soorat al-Kaafiroon 109) and in the second Qul Huwa Allaahu ahad (Soorat al-Ikhlaas 112). Then when he has finished this prayer he should go to the Black Stone and touch it if he can. It is prescribed at this point to touch it only; if he cannot do that then he should go away and not point to it.
Then after he has done tawaaf and prayed two rak’ahs, he should go to the Mas’a (place for doing saa’i) and perform saa’i between al-Safa and al-Marwah.
SAA’I BETWEEN AL-SAFA AND AL-MARWAH
Then he should go out to the Mas’aa (place for saa’i) and when he comes near to al-Safa’ he should recite (interpretation of the meaning):
“Verily, As-Safa and Al-Marwah (two mountains in Makkah) are of the Symbols of Allaah”
And he should say: “Nabda’u bima bada’a Allaah bihi(We start with that with which Allaah started).”
Then he should climb al-Safa until he can see the Ka’bah, then he should face it and raise his hands and praise Allaah, and make du’aa’ as he wishes. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to say: “Laa ilaaha ill-Allaah wahdahu laa shareeka lah, lahu’l-mulk, wa lahu’l-hamd, wa huwa ‘ala kulli shay’in qadeer. Laa ilaaha ill-Allaah wahdah, anjaza wa’dah, wa nasara ‘abdah, wa hazamaa al-ahzaaba wahdah (There is no god but Allaah alone, with no partner or associate; His is the Dominion, all praise is due to Him, and He is able to do all things. There is no god but Allaah alone; he fulfilled His promise, granted victory to His slave, and defeated the confederates alone).” Narrated by Muslim, 1218.
He should repeat that three times, and make du’aa’ in between. He should recite this dhikr then make du’aa’, then recite it again and make du’aa’, and recite it a third time, then come down to al-Marwah, and not make du’aa’ after the third time.
When he reaches the green marker he should run as quickly as he can without disturbing anyone, because it was proven that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did saa’i between al-Safa and al-Marwah, and he said, “The river bed is not crossed except with vigour.” Narrated by Ibn Maajah and classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Ibn Maajah, 2419.
The river bed [it was a dried river bed in the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)] is the area between the two green markers that stand there now.
When he reaches the second green marker, he should walk normally until he reaches al-Marwah. He should climb up it and turn to face the qiblah, and raise his hands and say what he said at al-Safa. Then he should come down from al-Marwah and head for al-Safa, walking in the place of walking and running in the place of running. When he reaches al-Safa he should do what he did the first time, and the same when he goes back to al-Marwah, until he has completed seven circuits; going from al-Safa’ to al-Marwah is one circuit, and coming back from al-Marwah to al-Safa is another circuit. During his saa’i he can say whatever he likes or dhikr and du’aa’, and recite Qur’aan.
The verse (interpretation of the meaning):
“Verily, As-Safa and Al-Marwah (two mountains in Makkah) are of the Symbols of Allaah”
should be recited by the pilgrim who wants to perform saa’i when he approaches al-Safa at the beginning of saa’i only. It is not mustahabb to repeat it every time he approaches al-Safa and al-Marwah, as some people do.
SHAVING THE HEAD OR CUTTING THE HAIR
When the pilgrim who is doing Tamattu’ has completed seven circuits of saa’i, he should shave his head if he is a man, or cut his hair. If he shaves his head he must shave his entire head, and if he cuts his hair he must cut from all over his head. Shaving is better than cutting because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) made du’aa’ three times for those who shaved their heads and once for those who cut their hair. Narrated by Muslim, 1303.
But if the time of Hajj is so close that there will be no time for the hair to grow back, then it is better to cut one’s hair at this point, so that there will be some hair left to shave during Hajj. The evidence for that is the fact that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) commanded his companions, during the Farewell Pilgrimage, to cut their hair during ‘Umrah, because they arrived on the morning of the 4th of Dhu’l-Hijjah.
Women should cut the length of a fingertip from their hair.
With these actions, the ‘Umrah of the one who is doing Tamattu’ is concluded, after which he should exit ihraam completely and do everything that those who are not in ihraam do, such as wearing regular clothes, wearing perfume, having intercourse with their wives, etc.
Those who are doing Ifraad or Qiraan should not shave their heads or cut their hair, or exit ihraam, rather they should remain in ihraam until they exit ihraam on the day of Eid, after stoning Jamarat al-‘Aqabah and shaving their heads or cutting their hair.
Then when the day of al-Tarwiyah comes, which is the 8th day of Dhu’l-Hijjah, the one who is doing Tamattu’ should enter ihraam for Hajj in the morning from the place where he is in Makkah. It is mustahabb for him to do the same when entering ihraam for Hajj as he did when entering ihraam for ‘Umrah, namely doing ghusl, putting on perfume and praying. He should form the intention of entering ihraam for Hajj and recite the Talbiyah, and say, “Labbayk Allaahumma Hajjan (Here I am, O Allaah, for Hajj).”
If he fears some obstacle that may prevent him from completing his Hajj, he should stipulate a condition by saying, “If I am prevented then my exiting ihraam is where I am prevented.” If he does not fear any such obstacle then he should not make any such condition. It is mustahabb to recite the Talbiyah out loud until he starts to stone Jamarat al-‘Aqabah on the day of Eid.
GOING TO MINA
Then the pilgrim should go out to Mina and pray Zuhr, ‘Asr, Maghrib, ‘Isha’ and Fajr there, shortening the prayers but not joining them, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to shorten his prayers in Mina but he did not join them. Shortening the prayers means making the four-rak’ah prayers two raka’ahs. The people of Makkah and others should shorten their prayers in Mina, ‘Arafah and Muzdalifah because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to lead the people in prayer during the Farewell Pilgrimage and there were people from Makkah with him, but he did not tell them to offer their prayers in full. If it had been obligatory for them to do so, he would have told them to do so as he did on the day of the Conquest of Makkah. But since the city has spread and incorporated Mina so that it is like one of the quarters of Makkah, then the people of Makkah should not shorten their prayers there.
GOING TO ‘ARAFAH
When the sun rises on the day of ‘Arafah, the pilgrim travels from Mina to ‘Arafah and stops in Namirah until the time of Zuhr (Namirah is a place just before ‘Arafah), if he can do so. If he cannot do it, it does not matter because staying in Namirah is Sunnah but it is not obligatory. When the sun passes its zenith (i.e., when the time for Zuhr prayer begins), he should pray Zuhr and ‘Asr, two rak’ahs each, and join them together at the time of Zuhr, as the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did, so as to leave a lot of time for standing and making du’aa’.
Then after the prayer he should devote his time to making dhikr and du’aa’ and beseeching Allaah, and praying as he likes, raising his hands and facing the qiblah even if the mountain of ‘Arafah is behind him, because the Sunnah is to face the qiblah, not the mountain. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) stood by the mountain and said, “I am standing here, but all of ‘Arafah is the place of standing.”
Most of the Prophet’s du’aa’ in that great place of standing was: “Laa ilaaha ill-Allaah wahdahu laa shareeka lah, lahu’l-mulk, wa lahu’l-hamd, wa huwa ‘ala kulli shay’in qadeer (There is no god but Allaah alone, with no partner or associate; His is the Dominion, all praise is due to Him, and He is able to do all things).”
If the pilgrim gets tired and wants to have a break by talking to his companions about useful things or by reading from some useful books, especially things that have to do with the generosity and great bounty of Allaah, in order to increase his hopes on that day, this is good. Then he can go back to beseeching Allaah and praying to Him. He should strive to make the most of the end of the day by making du’aa’. The best of du’aa’ is du’aa’ made on the day of ‘Arafah.
GOING TO MUZDALIFAH
When the sun sets, the pilgrim should go to Muzdalifah. When he reaches there, he should pray Maghrib and ‘Isha’ with one adhaan and two iqaamahs. If he fears that he will not reach Muzdalifah before midnight, he should pray on the way, because it is not permissible to delay ‘Isha’ prayer until after midnight.
He should stay overnight in Muzdalifah, then when dawn comes he should pray Fajr early, with the adhaan and iqaamah, and then head for al-Mash’ar al-Haraam (which is the site of the mosque in Muzdalifah) and proclaim the oneness and greatness of Allaah (by saying Laa ilaaha ill-Allaah and Allaahu akbar), and making du’aa’ as he likes, until it has become very light (i.e., when the light of day appears before the sun has actually risen). If it is not easy for him to go to al-Mash’ar al-Haraam, he should make du’aa’ where he is, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) stood there and all of Muzdalifah is the place of standing. When he is reciting dhikr and making du’aa’ he should face the qiblah and raise his hands.
GOING TO MINA
When it has become very light, before the sun rises, he should go to Mina and hasten through Wadi Mahsar (which is a valley between Muzdalifah and Mina). When he reaches Mina he should stone Jamarat al-‘Aqabah, which is the last one that is closest to Makkah, throwing seven pebbles one after another, each of which should be approximately the size of a fava bean, saying “Allaahu akbar” with each throw. (The Sunnah when stoning Jamarat al-‘Aqabah is to face the Jamarah with Makkah to one’s left and Mina to one one’s right). When he has finished this stoning, he should slaughter his sacrificial animal, then shave his head or cut his hair if he is male; women should cut the length of a fingertip from their hair. This is the first stage of exiting ihraam, in which it becomes permissible to do everything except have intercourse with one’s wife. Then the pilgrim should go back to Makkah and do tawaaf and saa’i for Hajj. Then comes the second stage of exiting ihraam, after which everything becomes permissible which was forbidden whilst in ihraam.
The Sunnah is to put on perfume when one wants to go to Makkah to do tawaaf after stoning the jamarat and shaving one’s head, because ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) said: “I used to apply perfume to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) before he entered ihraam and when he exited ihraam, before he circumambulated the House.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 1539; Muslim, 1189.
Then after tawaaf and saa’i, he should go back to Mina and stay there for two night, the 11th and 12th of Dhu’l-Hijjah, and stone the three jamarats during those two days, when the sun has passed its zenith. It is better for him to go to the jamarats walking, but if he rides that is acceptable. He should stone the first jamarah, which is the one that is furthest away from Makkah and next to Masjid al-Kheef, with seven pebbles, one after another, and say “Allaahu akbar” after each throw. Then he should go forward a little and say a lengthy du’aa’, saying whatever he likes. If it is too difficult for him to stand for a long time and make du’aa’, he should say whatever is easy for him, even if it is only a little, so that he will have done the Sunnah.
Then he should stone the middle jamarah with seven pebbles, one after another, saying “Allaahu akbar” with every throw. Then he should move to his left and stand facing the qiblah, raising his hands, and offer a lengthy du’aa’ if he can. Otherwise he should stand for as long as he can. He should not omit to stand and make du’aa’ because it is Sunnah. Many people neglect that because of ignorance or because they take the matter lightly. The more the Sunnah is neglected the more important it becomes to do it and spread it among the people, lest it be abandoned and die out.
Then he should stone Jamarat al-‘Aqabah with seven pebbles, one after another, saying “Allaahu akbar” with each throw, then he should go away and not offer a du’aa’ after that.
When he has completed the stoning of the Jamaraat on the 12th day of Dhu’l-Hijjah, if he wants he may hasten and leave Mina, and if he wants he may delay his departure and stay there for another night, the night of the 13th, and stone the three Jamaraat after noon as he did before.
It is better to delay, but it is not obligatory unless the sun has set on the 12th and he is still in Mina, in which case it is obligatory to stay until one has stoned the three Jamaraat after noon on the following day. But if the sun sets on the 12th and he is still in Mina but not by choice, such as if he had already started out and boarded his means of transportation, but got delayed because of crowded conditions and traffic jams etc., then he is not obliged to stay there, because the delay until sunset was not by his choice.
When the pilgrim wants to leave Makkah and go back to his country, he should not leave until he has performed the farewell tawaaf (tawaaf al-wadaa’), because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “No one should leave until the last thing that he does is (tawaaf) around the House.” Narrated by Muslim, 1327). According to another version, he told the people that the last thing they should do was (tawaaf) around the house, but he made an exception for women who were menstruating. Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 1755; Muslim, 1328.
Women who are menstruating or bleeding following childbirth do not have to do the farewell tawaaf; neither should they stand by the door of al-Masjid al-Haraam to bid farewell, because that was not narrated from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).
The last thing the pilgrim should do when he wants to leave is to circumambulate the House. If after the farewell tawaaf he stays and waits for his companions or to load his luggage or to buy something he needs on the way, there is nothing wrong with that, and he does not have to repeat the tawaaf, unless he intends to delay his journey, such as if he intended to travel at the beginning of the day and he did the farewell tawaaf, then he delays his travelling until the end of the day, for example; in this case he has to repeat the tawaaf so that it will be the last thing he does in Makkah.
The pilgrim who enters ihraam for Hajj or ‘Umrah has to do the following:
1- He has to adhere to that which Allaah has enjoined of religious laws, such as praying on time in congregation.
2- He has to avoid all that Allaah has forbidden of obscene and immoral speech and sin, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“So whosoever intends to perform Hajj therein (by assuming Ihraam), then he should not have sexual relations (with his wife), nor commit sin, nor dispute unjustly during the Hajj”
3- He should avoid annoying the Muslims with his words or actions, at the holy sites and elsewhere.
4- He should avoid all things that are forbidden when in ihraam:
So he should not cut anything from his hair or nails, but removing thorns and the like is fine, even if that results in some bleeding.
He should not apply perfume after entering ihraam, either to his body, his clothes, his food or his drink. He should not wash with perfumed soap either. But if any traces of perfume remain from that which he put on before entering ihraam, that does not matter.
He should not hunt.
He should not have intercourse with his wife.
He should not touch her with desire or kiss her etc.
He should not enter into a marriage contract for himself or arrange a marriage for anyone else, or propose marriage to a woman for himself or on behalf of another.
He should not wear gloves, but wrapping one’s hands with a piece of cloth does not matter.
These seven prohibitions apply equally to men and women.
The following apply only to men:
– Men should not cover their heads with something that stays on the head. Shading their heads with umbrellas, car roofs and tents, and carrying mats etc. (on one’s head, when moving them from one place to another), is acceptable.
– They should not wear shirts, turbans, burnouses, pants or leather slippers, unless someone cannot find an izar (waist wrapper), in which case he may wear pants; and if he cannot find sandals he may wear shoes.
– They should not wear anything that is akin to the above, such as abayas, cloaks, hats, t-shirts and the like.
– It is permissible for men to wear sandals, rings, eyeglasses and hearing aids, and to wear wristwatches, or to put watches on strings around their necks, and to wear money belts.
– It is permissible for them to wash with unperfumed soaps, and to scratch their heads and bodies, and if any hairs fall unintentionally as a result, there is no sin on them.
Women should not wear niqaab, which is what they use to cover their faces, with holes cut for the eyes. They should not wear the burqa’ either.
The Sunnah is for them to uncover their faces unless non-mahram men can see them, in which case they should cover their faces whilst in ihraam and at other times.
See Manaasik al-Hajj wa’l-‘Umrah by al-Albaani [available in English as The Rites of Hajj and ‘Umrah, published by International Islamic Publishing House, Riyadh]; Sifat al-Hajj wa’l-‘Umrah and al-Manhaj li Mureed al-‘Umrah wa’l-Hajj by Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on them all).
Alhamdulillahi Rabbil Alamin wa sallatu wa sallamu ala Rasulillah!
In acest articol:
(I)-Care sunt conditiile pentru ca Hajj-ul sa devina obligatoriu?
(II)- Este permis pentru cel ca indeplineste conditiile pentru a merge la Hajj sa amane pentru un numar de ani?
(I) CARE SUNT CONDITIILE PENTRU CA HAJJ-UL SA DEVINA OBLOGATORIU?
Invatatii Islamului (Allah sa aibe mila de ei) au stabilit conditiile pentru ca Hajj-ul sa fie obligatoriu, care daca sunt indeplinite, fac Hajj-ul obligatoriu pentru acea persoana, si fara de care, Hajj-ul nu este oblugatoriu.
(1)- Sa fii Musulman
Aceasta conditie se aplica pentru toate actele de adorare, deoarece actele implinite de kaafirs nu sunt valide.
Conform hadeeth-ului lui Mu’aadh, cand Profetul (sall Allahu aleyhi wa sallam) l-a trimis in Yemen a spus:”Tu vei merge la oameni dintre oamenii Cartii. Cheama-i sa marturiseasca ca nu exista alta divinitate demna de adorare in afara de Allah si ca eu sunt Mesagerul lui Allah. Daca ei ți se supun ție in asta, spune-le ca Allah le-a impus lor cinci Rugaciuni in fiecare zi si noapte. Daca ți se supun ție in asta, spune-le ca Allah le-a impus lor caritatea (zakat) sa fie luata de la bogatii lor si sa fie data saracilor.” [Convenit]
Asadar prima conditie este sa intre in Islam, si dupa ce devin Musulmani, sa implineasca Rugaciunea, sa dea zakat, sa posteasca, sa implineasca Hajj si toate datoriile Islamului.
(2) si (3)- Sa fie sanatos mintal si sa fie adult
Profetul sall Allahu aleyhi wa sallam a spus:”Stiloul este ridicat de la trei [si nu le inregistreaza faptele]: de la cel care doarme pana se trezeste; de la copil pana atinge pubertatea; si de la nebun pana isi revine.” [Abu Dawood, 4403; clasat ca saheeh de al-Albaani in Saheeh Abi Dawood.]
Asa ca, un copil nu este obligat sa implineasca Hajj, dar daca parintii lui il iau cu ei la Hajj, Hajj-ul sau este valid; copilul va avea rasplata Hajj-ului, iar parintii lui vor avea de asemenea rasplata, deoarece atunci cand o femeie a ridicat un copil si a intrebat:”Este Hajj pentru el?”, Profetul sall Allahu aleyhi wa sallam a spus:”Da, si tu vei avea rasplata.” [Muslim]
4- Sa fie liber
Hajj-ul nu este obligatoiu pentru un sclav. Nu mai este de actualitate.
5 – Sa fie capabil sa implineasca Hajj-ul
“Este o datorie a oamenilor faţă de Allah [să împlinească] Pelerinajul (Hajj) la această Casă, dacă au mijloacele pentru aceasta (daca isi permit cheltuielile).” [Aal ‘Imraan 3:97]
Acest lucru presupune sa fie capabil atat fizic, cat si financiar.
A fi capabil fizic inseamna sa fie sanatos si sa poata indura greutatile calatoriei catre Casa Sfanta a lui Allah.
A fi capabil din punct de vedere financiar inseamna sa aiba suficiente fonduri pentru a ajunge la Casa lui Allah si inapoi.
Comitetul de Fatwa a spus (11/30):
‘A fi capabil sa implineasca Hajj inseamna ca este sanatos fizic si are mijloace de transport pentru a ajunge la Casa cea Sfanta a lui Allah, fie cu avionul, masina sau calarind un animal, sau prin inchirierea unor astfel de mijloace, in acord cu situatia lui, si ca are suficiente provizii pentru a merge acolo si a se intoarce. Acestea trebuie sa fie din surplusul fata de ceea ce are nevoie pentru a cheltui cu cei pentru care este obligat sa-i intretina, pana cand se intoarce de la Hajj. O femeie trebuie de asemenea sa aiba un sot sau un mahram cu care sa calatoreasca la Hajj sau Umrah.’
Daca o persoana are o datorie, si nu are suficienti bani si pentru a face si Hajj si pentru a-si plati si datoria, atunci trebuie sa-si plateasca prima data datoria si nu trebuie sa mearga la Hajj (daca nu mai are bani).
Unii oameni cred ca daca ceri permisiunea de la cel caruia datorezi bani si el iti acorda permisiunea, nu este nimic rau in asta.
Nu este nicio baza pentru aceasta gandire. Noi spunem: Plateste-ti datoria, si daca ti-au mai ramas suficienti bani, mergi la Hajj, altfel, Hajj-ul nu este obligatoriu in cazul tau.
Daca debitorul care nu a putut merge la Hajj din cauza datoriei sale moare, atunci el Il va intalni pe Allah cu Islamul sau fiind complet, deoarece Hajj-ul nu a fost obligatoriu in cazul sau, asa cum zakat si de asemenea Hajj nu sunt obligatorii pentru cel care este sarac.
Dar daca a facut Hajj inainte de a-si plati datoria si apoi moare inainte de a se achita de datorie, atunci el este in pericol, deoarece pana si martirul este iertat pentru orice in afara de datorie.
Comitetul pentru Fatwa a fost intrebat de asemenea despre cel care are o suma de bani intr-o banca Islamica iar venitul sau provine din profitul acelor bani care îi asigura lui o viata moderata. Este el obligat sa faca Hajj folosindu-se de acel capital, stiind ca acest lucru îi va afecta venitul lunar ?
Ei au raspuns:
“Daca situatia este cea prezentata, atunci nu esti obligat sa faci Hajj, deoarece nu faci parte dintre cei care au mijloacele cerute de shari’ah pentru a face Hajj (cf. Versetului 3:97).
Si de asemenea:
“El (Allah) v-a ales pe voi şi nu v-a impus în religie nici o greutate.” [al-Hajj 22:78] “
O alta nevoie de baza este casatoria. Daca o persoana trebuie sa se insoare, atunci acest lucru are prioritate fata de Hajj, altfel, Hajj-ul este prioritar.
Asadar, a fi capabil financiar, inseamna ca acea persoana sa aiba fonduri in plus care sa-i fie suficiente pentru a implini Hajj, dupa ce si-a achitat datoriile si a avut grija de obligatiile sale impuse de shari’ah si de nevoile sale de baza.
Daca o persoana este capabila fizic si financiar sa implineasca Hajj-ul, atunci este obligat sa se grabeasca sa faca Hajj.
Daca o persoana este capabila financiar, insa nu este capabila fizic, atunci trebuie sa stabilim urmatoarele:
-Daca problema lui este ceva ce el spera ca va disparea, precum o boala care are sperante de vindecare si recuperare, atunci va trebui sa astepte pana cand Allah il va vindeca, apoi sa faca Hajj.
-Daca problema lui este una pentru care nu este speranta ca va disparea, precum o persoana cu cancer sau o persoana foarte batrana care nu poate face Hajj, atunci va trebui sa desemneze pe cineva sa faca Hajj in numele sau, iar datoria lui de a implini Hajj nu se ridica din cauza inabilitatii fizice, daca el este capabil financiar.
Dovada pentru aceasta este o relatare in al-Bukhaari (1513), cand o femeie a intrebat:”O, Mesager al lui Allah, Porunca lui Allah pentru oameni de a face Hajj a venit cand tatal meu este un om batran si nu poate sta ferm în șa. Pot eu sa fac Hajj in locul lui? El a zis:”Da”.”
Pentru ca Hajj-ul sa fie obligatoriu pentru o femeie, este essential sa aiba un mahram cu ea, si nu este permis sa calatoreasca pentru Hajj, fie ca este un Hajj obligatoriu sau naafil (voluntar), fara un mahram, deoarece Profetul sall Allahu aleihi wa sallam a spus:”Nicio femeie nu trebuie sa calatoreasca fara un mahram.” [al-Bukhaari, 1862; Muslim 1341.]
Un mahram este sotul ei sau cel cu care casatoria este interzisa din cauza legaturilor de sange, alaptare sau legaturilor rezultate din casatorie. De asemenea este essential ca mahram sa fie un adult, sanatos mintal, deoarece scopul unui mahram este acela de a proteja femeia.
Daca femeia nu are un mahram, sau are, dar nu poate calatori cu ea, atunci ea nu este obligata sa faca Hajj.
Permisiunea sotului nu este o conditie pentru ca Hajj-ul sa fie obligatoriu pentru o femeie, din contra, ea este obligata sa faca Hajj atunci cand se intrunesc conditiile, chiar si daca sotul nu-i acorda permisiunea.
Aceasta este valabil in legatura cu Hajj-ul obligatoriu. In ce priveste Hajj-ul naafil (voluntar), Ibn al-Mundhir a relatat ca invatatii sunt in unanimitate de acord ca sotul are dreptul de a-i interzice sa faca un Hajj voluntar, deoarece drepturile sotului sunt obligatorii pentru ea si nu sunt intrecute de ceva ce nu este obligatoriu pentru ea.” [ Al-Mughni, 5/35.]
(II)- ESTE PERMIS PENTRU CEL CA INDEPLINESTE CONDITIILE PENTRU A MERGE LA HAJJ
SA AMANE PENTRU UN NUMAR DE ANI?
Daca o persoana este capabila sa faca Hajj si intruneste toate mijloacele pentru ca Hajj-ul sa fie obligatoriu pentru el, atunci trebuie sa faca Hajj imediat, si nu este permis pentru el sa amane.
Ibn Qudaamah (rh) a spus in al-Mughni:
‘Daca o persoana este obligata sa faca Hajj si este capabil sa faca, el trebuie sa faca Hajj imediat si nu este permis pentru el sa amane. Aceasta este opinia lui Abu Haneefah si Maalik.”
“Si Hajj (pelerinajul la Makkah) la aceasta Casa (Ka’abah) este o datorie a oamenilor faţă de Allah, dacă au mijloacele (pentru transport, provizii si rezidenta) pentru aceasta. Cât despre aceia care tăgăduiesc (neaga Hajj-ul, atunci este necredinta in Allah), atunci Allah nu are nevoie de aceste lumi (Aalameen-oameni, jinni si tot ce exista).” [Aal ‘Imraan 3:97]
Porunca este sa se implineasca imediat.
Si a fost relatata de Profet sall Allahu aleihi wa sallam care a spus:”Oricine doreste sa faca Hajj, sa se grabeasca sa-l faca.” [relatat de Imam Ahmad, Abu Dawood si Ibn Maajah]
Conform altei relatari:”..pentru ca ar putea sa se imbolnaveasca sau sa se confrunte cu vreo nevoie.” [Clasat ca hasan de al-Albaani in Saheeh Ibn Maajah.]
Ceea ce se intelege prin “sa se grabeasca sa-l faca (Hajj-ul)”, este ca, daca o persoana este dintre cei socotiti (adica este Musulman, adult, sanatos mintal), trebuie sa faca ceea ce este impus pentru el imediat ce devine capabil sa faca (acel lucru), si nu este permis pentru el sa amane fara nicio scuza.
Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (rh) a fost intrebat:”Porunca de a face Hajj inseamna ca trebuie facut imediat sau poate fi facut cand are timp liber?
El a raspuns:”Opinia corecta este ca trebuie facut imediat si nu este permis pentru cel care este capabil sa mearga la Hajj la Casa cea Sfanta a lui Allah sa amane. Acelasi lucru se aplica tuturor obligatiilor impuse de shari’ah: daca nu este un timp anume sau un motiv, trebuie implinite imediat.” [Fataawa Ibn ‘Uthaymeen, 21/13]
Musulmanul trebuie sa se grabeasca sa implineasca datoria Hajj-ului atunci cand este capabil sa-l faca, deoarece el nu stie ce se poate intampla cu el daca amana, dupa cum rezulta din textele din Coran si Sunnah. [Al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah li’l-Buhooth al-‘Ilmiyyah wa’l-Ifta’, 11/17]